The Effect of FACTS Devices on Voltage Sag Following Transformers Inrush Current and Short Circuit Faults

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran


Power quality has a high dependence on short-term voltage changes. Voltage changes can cause damage to sensitive electronic equipment. Voltage sag is one of the short-term voltage changes that can be due to various factors, such as the inrush current of the transformers during switching in the presence of large loads or during short circuit faults. An important issue in the discussion of voltage sag is the rate of voltage recovery to a stable value. In this paper, three different compensators, Static Var Compensator (SVC), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), and Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), which are considered flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices, have been used to reduce the inrush current during switching of the transformers and consequently reduce the voltage sag caused by this event. Also, the efficiency of these devices has been investigated to increase the voltage recovery rate after clearing various transient faults in the network, which are the main innovations of the present study. To evaluate and validate the results, a double-fed network modeled in PSCAD software is used. The results of the simulations will show that the compensators used in this research improve the voltage sag by limiting the current and will significantly improve the rate of voltage recovery to a stable value after clearing various faults.


Main Subjects

  1. Amiri, M. Akbari, “Transient current limiter for suppressing transformer inrush, motor starting and fault currents in power system,” IET Electr. Power Apps 11(3): 423–433, 2017.
  2. Bongiorno, J. Svensson, A. Sannino, "An advanced cascade controller for series-connected VSC for voltage dip mitigation,” IEEE Trans. Indust. Apps 44(1): 187-195, 2008.
  3. S. Kishore, S.K. Sinha, P. Abirami. et al, “Voltage sag reduction and power quality improvement using DVR,” Int. Conf. Computation of Power, Energy Information and Communication, 761-767, India, 2017.
  4. Babaei, M. Farhadi Kangarlu, “Sensitive load voltage compensation against voltage sags/swells and harmonics in the grid voltage and limit downstream fault currents using DVR,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., 83(1): 80–90, 2012.
  5. B. Abdul Basith, K. Sunitha, “A Novel Approach of Dynamic Voltage Restorer Integration with Ultra Capacitor for Proper Voltage Sag Compensation,” IEEE Int. Conf. Power, Control, Signals and Instrumentation Engineering., 578-582, India, 2017.
  6. Niasati, M. Fooladi. et al, “The Effect of the Static Transfer Switch on Power Quality of Power System,” Journal of Modeling & Simulation in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (MSEEE), 2(3): 57-61, 2022
  7. Liao, J. V. Milanovic, “On capability of different FACTS devices to mitigate a range of power quality phenomena,” IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 11(5): 1202-1211, 2017.
  8. Moravej, J. Enayati, “Harmonics Estimation in Power Systems using a Fast Hybrid Algorithm,” Journal of Modeling & Simulation in Electrical & Electronics Engineering (MSEEE), 1(2): 1-8, 2015.
  9. Bongiorno, J. Svensson, “Voltage Dip Mitigation Using Shunt- Connected Voltage Source Converter,” IEEE Power Elects. Specialists Conf., 1-7, South Korea, May 2017.
  10. I. Bardanov, T. V. Pudkova, “Control of D-STATCOM for Asymmetric Voltage Dips Compensation,” IEEE Conf. Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering., Russia, 430-433, January 2019.
  11. A. Bhatt, B. R. Bhalja, U. B. Parikh, “Evaluation of controlled energisation of an unloaded power transformer for minimizing the level of inrush current and transient voltage distortion using PIR-CBs,” IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 12(11): 2788-2798, 2018.
  12. Hasan, N. Gurung, K. M. Muttaqi. et al, “Electromagnetic Field-Based Control of Distributed Generator Units to Mitigate Motor Starting Voltage Dips in Power Grids,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity., 29(2): 1-4, 2019.
  13. Mitra, X. Xu, M. Benidris, “Reduction of Three-Phase Transformer Inrush Currents Using Controlled Switching,” IEEE Trans. Indust. Applications., 56(1): 890-897, 2020.
  14. Wei, D. Lu, T. Wu, and H. Hu, “Maximum Reactive Power Generation Method Based on Limitation of Output Capacity for Star-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge STATCOM Under Voltage Sag,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 71(1): 635-645, 2024.
  15. Hasheminejad, “A New Approach for the Transformer Differential Protection Based on S-Transform and Fuzzy Expert System,” Journal of Applied Research in Electrical Engineering 1(2): 159-168, 2022.
  16. AlassiK. H. AhmedA. Egea-AlvarezC. Foote, “Transformer Inrush Current Mitigation Techniques for Grid-Forming Inverters Dominated Grids,”IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 38(3): 1610–1620, 2023.
  17. ChenH. LiX. DongY, HeQ, ZhouY, Zhang, Yingying Zhang , “Magnetizing Inrush Current Elimination Strategy Based on a Parallel Type Asynchronous Closing Hybrid Transformer,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 38(1)931-943, 2023.
  18. Khederzadeh, “Mitigation of the impact of transformer inrush current on voltage sag by TCSC,” Electr. Power Syst. Res 80(9): 1049-1055, 2010.
  19. Husham, A. El-Din Hussein, M. A. Abido. et al, “Scattering Transformation Based Wide-Area Damping Controller of SSSC Considering Communication Latency,” IEEE Access, 9: 15510-15519, 2021.
  20. Bagheri, A. Rabiee, S. Galvani and F. Fallahi, “Congestion Management through Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices Using DigSILENT-Based DPSO Algorithm - A Real Case Study,” Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering 8(2): 97-115, 2020.
  21. K. Mahmoudi, M. E. HamedaniGolshan, R. Zamani, “Coordinated voltage control scheme for transmission system considering objectives and constraints of network and control devices,” Electr. Power Syst. Res 192: 1–12, 2021.